As the UK declares a lockdown in an attempt to combat the coronavirus pandemic, here is everything you need to know about the virus and how to stay safe in these unprecedented times.
What is a coronavirus?
According to the World Health Organisation, coronaviruses are a large family of viruses which have the ability to cause illness in both animals and humans. In humans it has been known to cause mild illnesses such as colds. However, coronaviruses have also been responsible for causing a number of dangerous respiratory conditions including Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and the most recently discovered Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19).
What makes COVID-19 different?
The new strain of coronavirus is highly infectious and can be dangerous. Though it manifests itself in similar ways to MERS and SARS, the fact that this strain of the virus has never been seen before makes it a complicated one to treat. According to scientists in China, COVID-19 has developed into two separate strains, making developing a vaccine more complicated.
What are the symptoms?
Major symptoms of coronavirus disease include a fever, a dry cough and extreme fatigue. Other patients have reported feeling aches and pains, nasal congestion and a sore throat, however these symptoms are less common. Symptoms of coronavirus usually begin mild and develop gradually.
It is important to note, however, that it is entirely possible to become infected with this disease without showing symptoms or feeling unwell.
How can I prevent myself from catching or spreading it?
WHO now recommends that extensive measures are taken in order to stop the spread of COVID-19.
Regularly and thoroughly washing your hands with soap and water or using an alcohol-based hand sanitiser if hand washing facilities are not available.
Maintain at least 2-metres (6 feet) distance between yourself and other people. This is now known as social distancing.
Avoid touching your face as much as possible.
Making sure you, and the people around you, follow good respiratory hygiene.
Staying at home unless absolutely necessary. The UK government have now ordered citizens to stay indoors unless they are labelled as key workers who need to work, leaving the house to exercise, or to shop for essentials for yourself or someone you are caring for.
How did it start?
Though it is not yet confirmed how the virus broke out, the animal source of the virus has been linked to bats. Evidence also points to a “wet market” in Wuhan, China being the source of the outbreak. It is thought that the poor hygiene standards and the process of live animals being kept and butchered on site contributed to the risk of viruses transmitting to other animals. The busy nature of these markets also made it easier for the virus to be transmitted to a human.
The amount of time the pandemic will continue for, and how much worse it will get is currently unknown. Officials recommend keeping an eye on the World Health Organisation and Public Health England, as well as reliable news sources for regular updates on how to protect yourself and those around you.
The most important message right now is follow the government rules and stay at home unless absolutely necessary.
The Waste and Resources Action Programme (WRAP) has found that clothing has the 4th largest environmental impact after housing, transport and food.
With the bi-annual Paris Fashion Week being held on February 24th, 2020, the event reminds about a negative footprint of quick fashion. Studies suggest, that the fashion industry is producing extreme amounts of waste.
Generally, this year’s fashion was heavily focused on sustainability, hoping celebrities would reuse their previously worn dresses and tucks in social events such as BAFTAs and Oscars. None of these requirements were mandatory, yet it was expected that celebrities would follow the green theme. But not many did.
More environmentalists are emphasising the importance of reducing fashion events’ carbon footprint, because fashion industry is criticised for generating too much waste.
According to WRAP, around 1,100,000 tonnes of clothing are purchased every year in the UK. As their Sustainable Clothing Action Plan 2020 (SCAP) suggests, one of the ways to re-invent or simply extend life of clothes is purchasing items from charity shops.
Find yourself second-hand treasures in our favourite Central London’s charity shops using the map we provided.
Within the article, the BBC also mentions how many will have to think about eating more fruit and veg and less meat.
According to ourworldindata.com, livestock takes up around 80% of global agricultural land, and as humans, we consume around 300 million tonnes of meat a year. Unsurprisingly, this is causing a lot of strain on the environment.
Livestock produce 18% of greenhouse gasses, which is more than all emissions from ships, planes, trucks and other transport put together. Farming animals are also a cause of deforestation and degeneration.
Lifestyles like Veganism have taken off in the past 10 years, with it being held as the biggest trend in 2018. Many praise the lifestyle for its health benefits and its impact on the earth. BBC Good Food says that if everyone in the world went vegan, the worlds food-related emissions would drop by 70%.
Vegan lifestyles boast to help you lose excess weight, lower blood sugar, improve the functioning of the body and even protect you against cancer.
It was also revealed within the article that in order to save the planet, people may have to begin consuming less meat and leading a vegetarian or vegan lifestyle. It was revealed by fact.org that 2-3% of the UK is vegetarian, and meat consumption has actually fallen in recent years.
Many are jumping on the bandwagons of ‘no meat Monday’ and ‘veganuary’ to push themselves to try the lifestyle.
Studies show that most vegans are aged 16-24, with now half a million vegans on the streets of the UK. No longer is it dedicated to the hippies; even bodybuilders are getting in on it, supplying evidence to the myth that they need animal protein to gain muscle.
Food, in general, is responsible for over one-quarter of all greenhouse gasses, with dairy and meat being the biggest culprits for the carbon footprint.
Of course, older generations are not as forthcoming with their diets, with many luxuriating in their now rationales world. but more and more people are choosing the no-meat life, which is another thing that can be done to help the environment thrive.
Earlier this week a UN report was published describing a biodiversity crisis. But what does this mean, and how does it impact the world we live in?
Ella Cohen, a Zoology student at Capel Manor College, helps explain what the new findings mean for the future of the planet, and what needs to be done to prevent important species from extinction.
The report concluded that 1 million species are endangered, highlighting that frogs and other amphibians, corals and marine mammals, and mammals that we often eat, could all be extinct in just a few decades.
Hundreds of species have been extinct since the 20th century: Infographic created by Luca Staccini
Ella believes primates in Madagascar are a big concern. “The current ecosystem out there is tremendously vulnerable and unbalanced. The amount of tourists travelling to the remote island create an additional strain to the success of populations out there.”
She also says coral reefs and fish populations are also forgotten about, but admits pollinators will have the largest effect on the planet. “They are at the core of reproductive success in the natural world, having a direct impact on society too”.
These endangered species are already having an impact on the environment, but if nothing changes, they will become even more serious. The food chain is a part of our ecosystem that works in balance with thousands of species, but if key plant and animal life become extinct, it will alter the process in detrimental ways.
Take the lynx and the snowshoe hare in Canada. The lynx are predators to the hare, hunting them as a main food source. At the same time, the hare’s peak population can be too much for plant species to cope. The hare’s then become weak as they have lost vegetation to graze on, making it easier for the lynx to catch them.
But the hare’s population decreases so much that there’s no longer enough for the lynx to hunt, whose population also begins to decrease. This then gives the hare’s a chance to breed and increase their population again.
If one of these species were to become endangered or extinct, the delicate system they live in would shift, causing the surrounding environment to change.
“This can have negative effects on our diets, our health with an increased risk of disease, and the whole ecosystem will collapse,” Ella says, saying that it’s important to have a balance between humans and the other species we share the Earth with. “By allowing the ecosystem to sustain itself we can all thrive in existence together”.
Deforestation is leaving thousands of animals without a home, and reducing biodiversity in the surrounding area: image courtesy of Pexels
We are always told to make small environmentally friendly changes to our lifestyle, but we never know how much our contribution is having.
“We must be mindful of our choices, habits and behaviours. Humans are selfish and it is about time we realise that we are not just living our lives for us now”. Ella believes that our actions don’t go unnoticed, and if we are all more mindful of our diets, we can slowly reverse our actions.
“Things like single-use plastic in the form of straws or containers need to go. And sourcing food as locally as possible and introducing more vegetables into your lifestyle can make all the difference.”
If everyone were to follow this lifestyle, positive effects would begin to occur, but it really does take everyone. Countries around the world need to support each other to replace old, harmful habits, with new methods and ideas, that will bring the planet back to a healthy state.
Climate change is not becoming a thing of the past. Recently, there has been a rise in strikes for environmental change throughout the world.
These protests are occurring as a result of society becoming more aware of the irreversible damages our lifestyles are posing for the future of the earth.
Since 2005, carbon dioxide levels have been on the rise, with the highest concentration being recorded this year at 650,000 parts per million.
This greenhouse gas traps heat in the atmosphere. This gas is released from human activities which include deforestation, the burning of fossil fuels, respiration, etc. As a result of this gas being trapped in the atmosphere, temperatures around the globe have drastically risen in the past 19 years, with 2016 being recorded as the hottest years ever.
Photo by: Kenya Best
A domino effect is occurring, as the rise in temperatures causes the Arctic ice caps to melt and as a consequence, the sea levels around the world are rising.
The United Kingdom is also beginning to face the effects of climate change. The Environment Agency has asked that urgent measures be taken to protect the country from coastal and river flooding.
When this average temperature rise of 4C occurs, many persons may be forced to leave their homes and businesses. Despite this, because of the increase in population, by 2050, the number of homes built on floodplains may be doubled.
Other severe effects of climate change include drought, high sea levels, stronger hurricanes and an increase in precipitation to name a few.
Photo by: Kenya Best
With society seeing the changes occurring throughout the world as a result of global warming, more and more people are speaking out about the human activities that are damaging the atmosphere.
With this awareness, groups and campaigns are being formed in an attempt to save the planet. With the rise in campaigns, came the term “climate justice”, where global warming is a consequence of ethical and political issues, rather than being purely environmental or physical in nature.
Young children and adults are realising that their futures are in jeopardy and have begun speaking out against the governments, to ensure they put legislation in place to protect the Earth.
In the United Kingdom, Student Climate Network, is an organisation led by teenagers in the fight for climate justice. On 15th February, 2019, one of the largest climate strikes occurred, with over 10,000 students, skipping classes and taking to the streets to protest.
Throughout the world, more young people are being influenced by the young activist Greta Thunberg, who started it all. Through these strikes, governments have begun to take climate change and global warming more seriously.
A recent initiative by scientists in Cambridge has begun to find ways to repair the Earth’s climate. A research centre is being set-up to investigate revolutionary approaches as the current ways being implemented, on their own, will not stop the irrevocable damage already done.
Photo by: Kenya Best
Some of these methods include refreezing the poles, recycling carbon dioxide and ocean greening.
I spoke to Stefan Adams, who for his final project, was showing the effects of climate change. “I think people are becoming more aware of [climate change] it.” He says this awareness is thanks to the media and the different strikes occurring.
“Getting away from using fossil fuels..governments imposing sanctions on air flight, food and shopping, so everybody uses a lot less. It’s quite totalitarian…you might have to start going on holiday only once a year or the world collapses.”
We as humans may have to give up on our lavish lifestyles in hopes that we have sustainable futures, but it’s up to governments to ensure they do their parts.
But what’s clear from all of this is that the fight against climate change is definitely not dying out – it seems like it has only just begun.
Below are the methods that the Cambridge scientists hope to help tackle the climate change crisis.
Heathrow Airport handles millions of passengers each year, but of the 78 million passengers using Heathrow as part of their journey, how many stopped to consider that Heathrow itself was a tourist attraction.
Upon arrival at Heathrow, leaflets and brochures for West End shows and London Tour Buses can be seen in almost every corridor. But for some, the very buildings that these passengers walk through are the sight to to see.
Its not clear when plane spotting became a hobby comparable to collecting stamps or a quick game of squash. In the UK at least, the aviation industry has always been marvelled and celebrated, with names such as Spitfire, Concorde and Farnborough being the very pinnacle of British aviation.
The UK loves its planes, and there are whole airfields and museums, packed with hangars of the world’s first hang gliders, bi-planes, and jet aircraft. So what sets out Heathrow, a fully functioning airport, to be a tourist attraction.
All credits to this footage belongs to Casey Planespotting.
Location, Location, Location:
Heathrow’s proximity to major towns and cities makes it ideally suited for travellers to choose Heathrow as their airport of choice. Connected by a coach station, London Underground, Heathrow Express and two motorways, its certainly accessible.
Thomas Mercer, former British Airways Cabin Crew, still occasionally visits the airport and the surrounding area. “I’m actually meeting a friend at Terminal 5” – following our interview.
He’s not alone. Buses that connect Heathrow to local boroughs and suburbs such as Feltham, Hillingdon, Hounslow, Staines and Uxbridge provide access to local residents. One bus driver on Heathrow route said “Not a day goes by when there isn’t a local wanting to see the planes. Day or night, rain or fog, they’re always onboard”.
With shops, cafes, restaurants, transport links and access to medical facilities, Heathrow Airport may as well be London’s 34th Borough. But most of all Heathrow has several observation decks. These observation decks allow for panoramic views of aircraft taxiing the airfield, and views of the surrounding area.
Terminal 2 was once the focal point of tourists, with notable events such as the eclipse of 1999 and last flight of Concorde drawing in crowds onto the 1960s promenade.
Since the demolition of the old Terminal 2 building, a replacement observation deck has not yielded the same number of visitors, but nevertheless visitors still turn up.
Going to official observation deck made of glass and still among photographers with telescopic lenses can be daunting, and on top of that there’s the roar of engines once every minutes as a plane takes-off or lands once a minutes. So some visitors join local residents and passers by to take in the majestic view of these aircraft from the airport perimeter.
Sites such as Myrtle Road – (close to Great South West Road and Hatton Cross Station) and Harlington Corner – (on Bath Road, near Northern Perimeter Road) have become a beehive of activity for aircraft enthusiasts and passers by.
If travelling on a bus near Heathrow, its impossible to ignore the tourist or flurry of school children who board the bus either to complete the latest stage in their journey or purely for leisure.
Former BA Cabin Crew Thomas Mercer “I do see the appeal of it. when I am near the Heathrow vicinity, I do check my flight radar app, to find out where the plane where the planes are going and what time and watch them take off.”
So it seems even local residents and former aviation employees look towards the sky occasionally to bask at metal birds which have made a home for themselves on their doorstep.
With the expansion of Heathrow imminent and a third runway granted for construction, will the residents of West London be further captivated by the expansion of its neighbour?
With a rise in demand for organic produce, a boom in lifestyles such as Veganism and the want for pesticide and chemical free produce, there have been a huge increase in people attending markets across the nation for their produce. The Veganism society claims that it was the biggest food trend in 2018, and many people are lookingthwards a healthier lifestyle with an array of fresh fruit and vegetables. With more and more farmers markets popping up every day, let’s look at some of London’s most famous market place and discover why they’re having such a powerful comeback.
The oldest surviving market in London and arguably the whole of Britain was first mentioned in historical texts in 1276, but is thought to have been around from as early as 1014. We are talking about the famous borough market which sits in Southwark under the London Bridge stretching down the side of the Thames. In the 19th century it became one of Londons most important food markets.
The market first established itself on the London Bridge and acted as a hub to sell to travellers who crossed the bridge from the city of London to Southwark town. A larger market was then set up which sold a wider range of produce near the foot of the bridge which was known as Guildable Manor. In the 1270’s, the City of London forbade its citizens to go to the markets as they began to undercut the cities traders by buying produce and reselling it for their own value.
As the time passed into the 16th and 17th century, Southwark was absorbed into the city of London and the authorities did it’s best to maintain order around the markets. They were supervised to maintain price control and inspected goods and were also required to set up fixed stalls as unlicensed trading was a big problem of the era.
In 1666, the Great fire of London burned down the main market house and a large portion of the bridge and it’s markets, and in 1756, nearly 100 year later, the government ceased trading on the market as it was taking away from the high street shops which were part of Londons growing economy. Outraged, the residents began petitioning to be allowed to begin a new market, independent to the city, away from the high street in order to not interfere with their business.
They quickly raised £6,000 (£1mil) and bought an area called the triangle and within two years the place was enlarged and a market house was built. The modern borough market was born.
Over the years, with the rise of national supermarkets which killed off the small grocery and market business, the market developed a niche for speciality meat and cheese. It has becomegreat tourist attraction, with around 16 million people visiting Londons oldest fruit and veg market every year.
The rise in demand for vegetable produce is doing wonders for markets across Britain.
Another famous market which is sometimes forgotten, is the beauty and uniqueness of Columbia Road Flower Market. Named in honour of the heiress and philanthropist Angela Burnett Couts who built the Original Columbia Market in the 19th century. It was her aim to bring cheap and good quality produce to the poorest of East London, so in 1868, she built a huge market building with over 400 stalls and apartments for the traders built above.
Unfortunately, due to limited transport connections and with big markets such as borough and convent garden which were closer to the centre of the city, the market couldn’t thrive. So, in 1871, the market hall was gifted to the city of London and was used for workshops and workhouses for 80 years till it was demolished in the 1950’s to make way for new housing opportunities. You can still see the gates and lion statues which sit outside a local primary school. The market continued on Columbia Road but with a swift change in produce from food to mostly bright, beautiful flowers helped the market survive.
The market suffered in WW2 due to rules regarding food rationing and part of the market received significant damage during the blitz, but in the 1960’s new rules meant traders had to attend regularly and with a resurgence in gardening, the market gained popularity. The changing of opening days to a Sunday instead of a Saturday also meant local jewish traders could bulk up numbers. Traders from other markets began flocking to the market selling left overs from the week, such as convent garden, but over time the market specialised in flowers.
Columbia Road Flower Market sound clip
One of the youngest but possibly one of the most globally famous markets is Camden Market. Although time wise, Camden market is only 50 years old, it remains one of the busiest, well known and popular destinations for tourists and residents of London.
Camden Market officially begun on the 30th March 1974, with a brand new Saturday market which housed a total of 16 stalls which sold antiques, jewellery and arts and crafts. However, previous to this the history of the famous Camden Locks has been slowly forgotten.
Famous scenes from the early 20th Century are recreated in TV productions such as ‘Peaky Blinders’ which shows the locks being a big import and export place for beverages such as whiskey and gin. Distilleries and warehouses would sit along the locks, all dedicated to the booze.
As the towns market developed, this art slowly depleted, lost and forgotten until 2014, when the tradition was reborn when Mark Holdsworth created ‘Half Hitch Gin’ which is distilled in Camden Town. The alcoholic drink can now be found in prestigious London hotels like the Hilton, St James and in establishments like The Shard and Selfridges.
It’s fame can be reflected in the numbers – over 28 million people visit the markets every year. In 1973 a wine merchant called John Armit and his business partner Tony Mackintosh were responsible for turning the ‘run-down packaging warehouse’ beside the canal into Dingwalls Dance Hall and the venue was soon a notorious place for punk-rockers. There have also been many famous faces walking the streets such as David Bowie, Lady Gaga, and is also where Amy Winehouse worked pre-fame as a teenager.
Nowadays, even though some of it’s traditional areas have been lost (the old lock keepers cottage is now a Starbucks) and the authorities have had a major push to eradicate the drug culture that had remained since the 80’s, the general vibe of the market makes it unique. It feels stuck in a period of punk rock with a tad of ibiza markets with the rage of counterfeit products making their name on the market alongside niche food products such as halloumi fries, vegan burgers and the infamous Cereal Killer cafe, which offers the widest range of breakfast cereals from across the globe, with an amazing collection of memorabilia.
Markets once were the entire economy in the UK, but with a rise in convenience stores and the demand for fresh, high quality produce, people are now looking for more substantial, economic sources. This has meant the market world which was once in a crippling decline, is being resurrected to supply those who are wishing to live a healthier lifestyle. In the future we could g straight back to markets and our local supermarket could be a desolate wasteland.
In a world with 7.7 billion people, water is scarce, food is no longer abundant (despite over production), and affordable shelter is becoming rapidly more difficult to find, is our population truly sustainable?
Every year the world’s population grows by another 83 million people. With an upward trend in population size leveling out at an annual 1.4% increase, it is no question that the size of our population is slowly, but surely becoming a clear issue.
For thousands and thousands of years, oceans have been a critical part of people’s lives. The oceans have been our grocery stores, highways, pharmacies, and source of entertainment.
Due to our ocean’s vastness, we see them as infinitely bountiful, infinitely abundant, infinitely ample. Now, more than ever we are seeing beaches that are so polluted people can’t swim. We are seeing an increase in bleached coral reefs. We are seeing shellfish unable to reproduce. We are seeing massively overfished areas.
Ocean acidification, osteoporosis of the sea, the silent killer of our oceans. Whatever your preference it all means the same thing. Over the last 250 years, the average concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere has made an unbelievable increase from 280 parts per million to 390 parts per million. That’s a 30 percent increase. Half of which was made between 1980 and today. To most people, this just seems like numbers, but when you realize that in the past, humans have only lived in concentrations of 190-330 it is easier to comprehend the problem at hand.
Illustrations by: Lucie Brunellière are available here
In long-term ocean acidification is likely to have the most significant impact on the coral reef ecosystems. Marine organisms that provide up to 50 percent of the oxygen that we breathe, such as Plankton and other small organisms, are abundant in coral reefs and will decrease dramatically. These small organisms not only affect us but other marine organisms as well. With pH levels dropping at this rate, current estimates reveal that we will lose 50 percent of our coral reefs over the next 40 years. That means that the quarter of marine species that rely on coral reefs to provide them home will face extinction unless able to adapt. At a pH level of 8.2, our seas are already acidic enough to dissolve shells. This is evident due to the 85 percent of oyster reefs gone because of the acidification of our oceans.
Not only does it threaten 25 percent of marine organisms, but ocean acidification also affects the estimated 500 million people who depend on coral reefs for their daily food and income. Finding jobs, I’m sure you all know, is hard enough in this economy, nonetheless it will become harder. Travel agencies workers, fishers, ecologists, chefs, food manufacturers and marine biologists will all be affected by ocean acidification. Areas such as Cairns, Australia, will no longer be generating over 6.5 billion dollars in tourism revenue due to the death of the Great Barrier Reef. As a result, 63,000 people would lose jobs in the area.
Although research is underway to improve the conditions of our oceans, not much is being done at the local or global level. Seeing that this is a reasonably recently discovered problem, scientists are still researching ocean acidification and its effects on the environment. Even so, scientific research has already saved species such as the Pacific Oyster from extinction.
Scientists do know one thing: irreversible damage will occur around 2060. Even if all carbon emissions stopped today, the pH of the ocean would still drop 0.1-0.2 pH units and it would take thousands of years for the world’s oceans to recover. Nonetheless, that is still better than the 0.5 units the pH was expected to fall by 2100, a 320 percent increase in acidity.
Our highways, our entertainment, our medicines. Our food, our stress reliever, our memories. Our expansion, our destruction, our mess. Ocean acidification will be a problem for centuries to come. Environmental problems have become apart of our society. Although some are discussed until the point of no longer caring, others are worth listening to.
Plastic pollution is arguably one of the most prominent issues of the 21st century. The words themselves have slowly become buzzwords in mainstream society – so it should be no surprise that people around the world are taking a stand against the issue.
What is plastic pollution?
According to PlasticOceans.org, almost 300 tons of plastic is produced annually around the world and half of this is for single use. Single use plastics include plastic bags, plastic cutlery, plastic bottles and plastic straws.
Every year, over eight million tons of plastic ends up in the world’s oceans and this causes a number of environmental issues. Not only do single use plastics make up 49% of beach litter, but they can also cause serious harm to wildlife. It’s easy for marine species to become entangled in pieces of plastic – plastic bags, for example – and it’s fairly common for animals to mistake plastic for food. Research from Greenpeace shows that up to 9 in 10 seabirds, 1 in 3 sea turtles and over half of whale and dolphin species have ingested plastic.
But it’s not just marine species that suffer from the amount of plastic we’re putting into our oceans: the entire food chain does – meaning that, if marine species such as fish are consuming high levels of plastic, humans are too, when they eat fish, for example. Not only are we eating plastic we’ve thrown away, but there’s also potential for this plastic to enter the tissues of our bodies – just as it does in sea animals.
Luckily, over the last few years, people have begun to wake up to the issues surrounding plastic pollution. The United Nations ‘declared war’ on plastic in February 2017, and media coverage has helped to raise awareness of these issues – perhaps the most famous example would be the BBC series Blue Planet II.
Things are looking up; the UK’s plastic bag pollution has decreased by 86% since the introduction of the 5p carrier bag charge in 2015. However, there’s still a long way to go – but there are some changes we can make. The key is switching to reusable products rather than disposable – using glass or metal water bottles instead of plastic bottles, buying reusable cups for hot drinks, saying no to plastic straws and so on.
Conveniently, there are a number of plastic-free shops popping up around the country. These stores aim to be as close to zero-waste as possible and minimise the amount of plastic used in everyday life. Shoppers can buy loose products in any quantity they wish – from cereal to washing powder and fruit and vegetables to salt – all without the unnecessary plastic.
Where are London’s plastic-free stores?
Currently there are nine plastic free stores in London.
Re:Store(Hackney’s most recent plastic-free opening):
Despite supermarkets also beginning to make changes, and the introduction of these plastic-free stores, there is still a long way to go. And although these stores aren’t accessible or practical for everyone, the increasing number of them gives us hope that things are going to change and, hopefully, we can collectively reduce the damage that plastic pollution is causing our planet.